Gafurova Gulrukh Bakhtiyorovna
Senior teacher in Foreign languages department
Jizzakh state pedagogical university
The author of this article explores the place and growing role of newspaper and journalistic texts both in intralinguistic and intercultural communication, and on the other hand, the problem of various compensations as one of the means of pragmatic adaptation of newspaper and journalistic texts is currently an underdeveloped area. The currently existing definitions of the pragmatic equivalence of journalistic translations are not clear enough and do not always reveal the essence of the linguistic mechanism of this transformation. It also considers the linguistic features of translation as a type of pragmatic adaptation and the construction of its typology, as well as the description of the functional and stylistic features of newspaper and journalistic texts.
publicist, newspaper, journalistic, pragmatics, pragma, adaptation, compensation, vernacular, dialectisms, parallelism, ellipsis, parcellation, alternation.
Language is the most important means of human communication. In a number of cases, the use of language is the main component of action. Therefore, it is quite justified to study language as an instrument of action. It is in this aspect that linguistic phenomena are considered within the framework of the emerging modern direction of linguistics – linguistic pragmatics, or pragmalinguistics. Today, pragmalinguistics is a field of linguistic research that has as its object the relationship between linguistic units and the conditions for their use in a certain communicative-pragmatic space.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
With the development of translation studies, the requirements for the quality of translation are increasing. However, if earlier scientists usually focused on the differences between the systems of the languages of the original and the target, today, among the criteria for assessing the quality of translation, translators are increasingly citing not only the degree of closeness to the original, the quality of the language design of the text, but also the ability of the translation to achieve the goals set by the author, but adequate a translation that preserves the pragmatics of the original is considered. The study of the pragmatic aspect of translation was devoted to the works of such scientists as N.D. Arutyunova, V.N. Komissarov, A. Neubert and others. Since the pragmatics of translation has not yet been sufficiently studied, this area of research remains one of the priorities.
The pragmatics of a journalistic text implies an active position of the addresser in relation to the addressee, because the assessment of certain events and the main persons involved in these events, as a rule, is included in the intentions of the author. The pragmatic orientation of the press is characterized by universality on the one hand and specialization on the other. Based on differences in style, subject matter, and content, the English-language press is classified as “high-quality” (news press), “medium” (opinion press), and “mass” (tabloid, “yellow” press) [4, p. 46]. The study analyzes the «quality» press, designed for the addressee, who, having read the news report, the position expressed in the newspaper, develops and forms his own opinion and vision of the modern world around. The sources of practical material were language units extracted from English-language newspapers and magazines.
Only such a translation can be considered adequate, in which all the intentions of the author are conveyed, in compliance with all the resources of imagery, rhythm, color. [6, p. 28] To achieve the adequacy of the translation, one should take into account the pragmatic factors of translation, in which scientists attribute the genre and stylistic features of texts in the original and translation languages to their unequal pragmatic value.
Note that the ability of a text to evoke a certain attitude towards the message in the recipient, to exercise a pragmatic influence on the recipient of information (cause certain feelings, emotions, induce certain actions) is called the pragmatic potential of the text. Depending on its communicative intention, the source chooses language units for transmitting information that have the necessary subject-logical and connotative meaning, and organizes them into statements in such a way as to establish a necessary semantic connection between them. 
The pragmatic potential of the utterance is realized differently in different languages, so one has to resort to pragmatic adaptation of the translation by making the necessary changes to the text.
That is why, in the process of translation, the translator performs the function of a filter (passing from the original into the translation, which will be accessible to the understanding of the secondary recipient), a magnifying glass (strengthening in the text of the translation what can pass unnoticed, but at the same time is fundamentally important for this work) and a transformer (having transferred the elements of the original text to another cultural and linguistic dimension, they cannot be adequately perceived and understood by readers) [9, p.65].
The evaluation of the quality of a translation depends on the understanding of the concept of pragmatic equivalence. The equivalence of the meaning of two statements is ensured by the identity of the consequences that these statements provide. According to Y. Nayda, it is dynamic equivalence that is focused on ensuring the equivalence of the impact on the reader of the translation and the original.[12, p. 18-25] It is believed that pragmatic equivalence exists when the translation adequately reproduces the value system of the original within the framework of the main pragmatic categories of the text. [7, p. 306] In this case, pragmatic equivalence can exist without semantic and syntactic equivalence.
Achieving pragmatic equivalence is a complex creative process, during which the most diverse facts of social and linguistic practice, the traditions of literature are relevant. The problems associated with this are clearly manifested in the translation of the titles of works of art.
The author’s individuality, the uniqueness of the worldview, the uniqueness of the linguistic form form one of the central pragmatic categories of the text – intentionality. The intentionality of the text reveals the creative nature of the use of language and is realized through the choice of language means that have a certain value – axiological, cultural-historical, aesthetic. The preservation of the system of these values within the framework of the pragmatic category of intentionality is one of the conditions for pragmatic equivalence in translation.
The image of the character of the source text in the translation texts made by different translators can acquire different interpretations, which leads to a difference in the nature of the impact on the reader. The reason for this is the difficulty of reproducing the communicative-pragmatic content of the character’s image, which is understood as such a set of important features of the artistic image, which is reflected in the depths of consciousness of the one who perceives the translated text. These signs are expressed in the text with the help of various language means, which have the potential to implement the author’s communicative and pragmatic attitudes. All this creates a communicative pragmatic effect.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Thus, the translator needs to take into account the individuality of the author’s style, the explicit and implicit intentions of the original creator, pragmatic presuppositions and attitudes towards the person / what he is reporting.
Since subtle relationships are established in a text with an aesthetic direction between different levels of expression and content, the translator should identify these levels, convey them in translation and be able to put them in the same relation to each other as they are in the original.
Starting work on the translation, the translator has to make a choice: focus on the author of the output speech message, identifying himself with him and his reader with the recipient of the original and trying to cause a similar communicative effect in his recipient, or focus only on his reader, trying to create such a communicative effect that provides a new communicative situation.
In the latter case, when the translator deliberately changes the communicative effect that the author of the original message was trying to achieve, one speaks of the pragmatic transformations of Anufriev S.S. 
In turn, pragmatically conditioned transformations aim to achieve a communicative effect in the translated text, equivalent to that found in the original text. As a result of transformations of this type, the pragmatic meaning of the original unit is preserved. 
The anthropocentric views of the translators gave impetus to the study of not so much languages as their application in order to ensure successful communication. Therefore, today the focus of scientists is increasingly becoming not language systems, but communicants, their intentions, communicative effects of statements.
Communicators, participants in the dialogue of the created text, are the author and the reader. This, in fact, led to the formulation of requirements not only for the translator, but also led to research on the role of the reader. This is how the concept of the «model reader» appeared – the reader whom the author (or translator) imagines and appeals to, a hypothetical audience programmed in the structure of each text. The author needs to provide a sample of a possible reader who is able to interpret statements in the same way as he interprets them.
The same applies to the translator, before creating a translation text, he must clearly present his readership, since «the pragmatic process of interpretation is not an empirical case, independent of the text as a text, but is a structural element of its generative process.»
The formation and development of the pragmatics of translation, and in particular the pragmatic aspect of translation, was influenced by the general theory of speech communication, the theory of communicative influence, the scopos theory and the theory of speech acts.
Scopus theory proceeds from the fact that translation is primarily a type of practical activity, and the success of any activity is determined by the extent to which it achieves its goals. Therefore, the criterion for the success of the translator’s activity is the achievement of the goal of communication, which is set by the author of the original. Thus, the translation process depends on hierarchically set goals (Scopus) that influence what should remain and what can be neglected in translation. At the same time, according to the Scopus theory, the translation should have an equivalent effect on the target audience as the original.
Despite the fact that the weak point of the Scopus theory is the lack of a boundary between the facts of translation and pragmatic adaptation, the reasoning about the hierarchy of Scopus that guides the translator, applying transformations in order to achieve an equivalent communicative effect, is valuable for literary translation.
One of the theoretical prerequisites for the pragmatic aspect of literary translation can be considered the general theory of language communication. This theory is based on the principle of relevance, which involves achieving the maximum benefit with the minimum effort.
Translation is related to the principle of relevance in the following way: the intended interpretation of the translation should resemble the original in such a way that it is adequately relevant to the audience, and therefore will provide an adequate communicative effect.
Thus, the translation must be formed in such a way that it produces the intended interpretation, and not force the audience to think about the information for a long time.
That is, the translator is not recommended to bother the text with an excessive number of notes, and in order for the translation to be understandable to the reader, the use of pragmatically determined transformations is presented.
As for the theory of communicative influence, in the process of translating a work of art, one should strictly adhere to the principle of Grice’s cooperation, namely the postulates of quality (distortion of the content of the original is unacceptable in translation), quantity (translation should contain no less and no more information than necessary), relevance ( the translator should ensure the transfer of the thematic coherence of the original work) and the method (the statement in the target language should be clearly formulated, ambiguity in the translation is necessary only when the corresponding intention of the author is traced in the original).
There is a connection between the study of the pragmatic aspect of translation and the theory of speech acts, because the interaction of a speech act and context is the core of pragmatic studies.
Therefore, it is clear that translators should understand what is acceptable for the culture of the recipient in expressing praise, when expressing sympathy, when congratulating or apologizing [2, p. 43-48]. Also important is the concept of conventionality, which is considered as independent of the speaker ways to ensure recognition of the purpose of the statement by listeners.
We are talking about the need to take into account the situational context in choosing a match, the presence of which in the translation text would not cause a feeling of unnaturalness and would convey the full meaning of the original. Therefore, translators should pay special attention to the translation of conventional acts, which are inherent in the «character of a ritual or ceremony».
To designate the conventional norms of speech behavior, the concept of a pragma, that is, a pragmatic function, is used. One pragma in the source and target languages can be embodied in different forms. It happens that a pragmeme presented in one language is absent in another. [3, p. 3-42]
It is also worth noting that the appearance in pragmatics of the concept of a text act caused a new understanding of the speech act as such, which not only matters for a certain statement, but also contributes to the deployment of the whole text.
One of the most important components of newspaper discourse is the headline. Headings are focused on the reader and his background knowledge, and hence the pragmatic focus, which consists in informing the addressee of some information about the text, influencing him, arousing the desire to read the article. Headlines in English and American newspapers are the most diverse in function, form, and the use of lexical means. The connection between the title and the text is realized with the help of keywords that carry special pragmatic possibilities and contribute to the achievement of the planned pragmatic effect.
One of the most important text-forming categories closely related to pragmatic adequacy is modality. In the expression of the author’s modality, the artistic means of the language play a decisive role. They influence the effectiveness of contacts with the reader and predetermine the achievement of high pragmatic adequacy.
The wide representation of metaphor in the English publicistic discourse gives grounds to consider it as the most frequently used way of developing linguistic semantics, which allows not only to designate new realities, but also to characterize already known phenomena in a more fresh and original way.
To create a journalistic image, a journalist resorts not only to metaphor, but also to other artistic means, such as metonymy, synecdoche, oxymoron, litote, hyperbole, paraphrase, irony, etc.
The specificity of the syntax of newspaper discourse lies in the use of repetitions, parallelism, ellipsis, parcellation, alternation of the length of statements and grammatical constructions characteristic of this style.
The phenomenon of English-language newspaper discourse lies in the presence of discursive actualizers – lexical neoplasms that are not currently described lexicographically and present a certain difficulty in translation.
In the modern English language of newspaper discourse, hyphenated multicomponent chain formations are also frequent, indicating a strict economy of the language, as well as the process of democratization of the language throughout the world.
It should be noted that in addition to a large number of foreign borrowings, in modern English discourse, the influences of the colloquial version of the language, vernacular, dialectisms and youth slang are noticeable.
The system of introductory elements deserves special attention. It can be considered as a communicative-pragmatic category with the general content of the subjective, evaluative attitude of the speaker to the statement. Inserted elements introduce into the main statement a pragmatic comment that is significant for the author, without which an adequate perception of the transmitted information is impossible [5, p. 18].
Studying and taking into account pragmatic maxims makes it possible to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of a journalistic text and ensures its high information content.
Thus, as a result of the review of the theoretical material, we found out that it is expedient to study the common pragmatically conditioned transformations in English-Russian literary translation.
It has been established that the connection between the theory of speech acts and the pragmatics of translation is manifested through the need to apply transformations caused by the difference in speech clichés, features of conversation in certain communicative situations in Russian and English in order to ensure the adequacy of translation.
Descriptive translation is used to explain those lexical units that have emerged as a result of certain social and cultural phenomena reflect the traditions of the native speakers of the original language.
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