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The analysis of stylistic devices used in literary novels

Safarova Dildora Senior lecturer, Jizzakh state pedagogical university Abstract: The stylistic devices in literary works by famous foreign writers are always actual to be studied. In this article we discuss the stylistic devices used in literary novels and the ways of how to analyze them.   Keywords: stylistics, stylistic device, contextual and lexical meaning, metaphor, motonomy, irony, expressive means, stylistic meaning, emotional meaning, logical meaning, derived meaning.   Introduction. In linguistic literature, such terms as expressive media, dedicated media, stylistic means, language figures, means of speech expressiveness, stylistic devices, figures of speech, tropes, etc. are often found. In the work of some authors, these terms are used in a synonymous sense, and sometimes – on the contrary, as opposite in command. So, I.V. Arnold of a foreign language follows the use of “all kinds of uses of words, phrases and context, combining all kinds of figurative general terms” trails “[1, p. 46]. A similar point of view I.R. Galperin, who emphasizes that the allocated means (eng. expressive means) include linguistic means that have stylistic meaning [2, p. 25], while stylistic means are those typical structural and semantic features of language units that are the use of intentional and conscious intensification (amplification) [2, p. 30]. As for linguistic figures (figures of speech, turns of speech, stylistic figures, means of speech expressiveness), then they are understood as such speech constructions that give speech stylistic significance, change its emotional coloring. As Yu.M. Skrebnev, in a broad sense, they include any language means, including tropes that give speech figurativeness and expressiveness, and in a narrow sense, syntagmatically formed means of expression [6, p. 31]. Methods and methodology. Despite the fact that a large number of local and foreign studies have been devoted to the study of these means and techniques, there is still no unified classification in science. At present, classifications of lexical expressive means of outstanding linguists D. Leach, I.R. Galperin, Yu.M. Skrebnev and V.A. Kukharenko. According to the classification of I.R. Galperin, which is based on a level-by-level approach, there are three large groups of expressive means and stylistic devices: phonetic, lexical and syntactic [2, p. 47]. As part of the actual lexical means, the scientist also identifies three subsections, representing different criteria for their choice and different semantic processes. The first section is divided into the following groups:
  1. a) means based on the interaction of vocabulary and contextual meanings (metaphor, metonymy and irony);
  2. b) means based on the interaction of initial and derived meanings (polysemy, zeugma, pun, etc.) [2, p. 54-58].
  3. c) means based on the opposition of logical and emotional meanings (epithet, oxymoron, as well as various interjections and exclamations with expressiveness) [3, p. 124].
  4. d) means based on the interaction of logical and nominal meanings (for example, antonymy as one of the special cases of metonymy).
Results and analysis. The contextual meaning of a word may differ from its lexical meaning. The interrelation between the lexical and the contextual meaning may be based on the similarity of two notions (metaphors), contiguity (metonymy) and on the opposition between the notions (irony). Here, let’s look at some of them closely.
  1. a) Metaphor. Metaphor (which is a greek word- meta “change” and phore “bear”) is a transference of meaning based on the similarity of two notions. Besides its function of denoting an object a metaphor also serves to give it some expressive characteristics. By means of this figure of speech one notion is likened to another. Thus a metaphor can be regarded as a disguised comparison, a foolish person, for example, is referred to as an ass, a spiteful woman may be called a cat etc.
One must distinguish between metaphors used as stylistic devices and words of metaphoric origin, which are usually called linguistic metaphors. In a linguistic metaphor the image may have faded as a result of long usage. Such are, for example, anthropomorphic metaphors, like “foot of a “bed”, “leg of a chair”, “mouth of a bottle”, “head of a nail”. A notion expressed by a stylistic metaphor has also another, non-figurative name, which is perceived together with the metaphor. Stylistic metaphors may be divided into stereotyped and individual ones. A stereotyped metaphor is an expressive means established in the language, for example: the ladder of fame, a gleam of hone, the salt of life, a flight of Imagination, under the guise of friendship, to burn with passion (anger), to nose into other people’s affairs, a crushing defeat. Many stereotyped metaphors have enriched English phraseology, forming set expressions like “to be in the same boat”, “to fence with a question”, “blind window”, “to fish for compliments”. Individual metaphors are the fruit of the author’s imagination [4, p.144]. They are often unique, depending on the writer’s imagination and his subjective perception of an idea. Compared with stereotyped metaphors individual metaphors are more picturesque and more emotional, for example: “the lips were tight little traps”, “the whole space …was a bowl of heat”, ”this virus carried a gun”, ”from the direction of the plain … leap to wide-toothed saw of bullets”. Individual metaphors depend greatly on the author’s style and on the literary genre as a whole. Metaphors used in elevated prose or in poetry often acquire a poetic flavour. The following are a few examples of poetic metaphors: I pant for the music which is divine, heart in its thirst is a dying flower: Pour forth the sound like enchanted wine, Loosen the notes in a silver shower. lts- body, which my dungeon is. And yet my parks and palaces: Which is so great that there I go All the day long to and fro, And when the night begins to fall Throw down my bed and sleep, while all The building hums with wakefulness. Practically every notional part of speech can be used in a figurative sense as a metaphor. It is nouns and verbs, however, that are most suitable for metaphoric transference of meaning. Here are a few examples of verbal metaphors: The dark swallowed him; Mrs. Small’s eyes boiled with excitement; His voice blanched in repetition; Mr. Baker ticked out of Sim Street. Substantival metaphors are best suited to give a vivid and graphic depiction of reality, e.g. ”He kept a tentacle well-placed around Edna’s waist”. “Our road was so little travelled that in the centre it had a mane of weeds”. Although less frequently than verbs and nouns, adjectives can be used as metaphors. The majority of adjectival metaphors, however, are expressed by an adjective derived from a noun, e.g. they were back, silent and wolfish; a great /powdery cloud. Metaphors can be divided into simple (elementary) and prolonged (expanded) ones. A simple metaphor consists of a word or a word-combination used in a figurative meaning. A prolonged metaphor is a stylistic device in which a word used in the figurative meaning causes other words connected with it to be also used in a transferred meaning. Prolonged metaphors can never be found ready-made in a language, they are always individual. As all the examples given above are elementary metaphors, we shall now add a few illustrations of prolonged metaphors: The tight little days turned seven times, and clicked on tooth of the week which in turn engaged the slow, constantly moving wheel of months; Our gallant black hood sailed into the sharp little rise of road, gulped it down, stones and all, and spat it out behind us; It was a poison … that struck with a thin, keen blade and then concealed the weapon quickly; Seaton’s body swung as he walked and Brian was often in danger of falling overboard, pitching head first from his life boat dad into the boiling sea of other heads around;  Our family rivulet joined other streams and the stream was a river pouring into St. Thomas’s Church. Metaphors can be rightfully regarded as one of the most graphic means of expressing a notion. At the same time, however, one must not forget that in creating an image to denote a more abstract notion, metaphors enable a highly subjective interpretation of the latter. Therefore, metaphors are hardly ever used in scientific texts. However, to express one’s ideas in a more graphic and convincing way, metaphors are sometimes resorted to. It is in popular-scientific texts that metaphors are more frequently used to make scientific problems more accessible to the reader, for example, The buffeting-about of the incoming word often results, in the end, in a single surviving and fixed shape. Metaphors are in common currency in newspaper and oratorical style, where they are often used to add sharpness to criticism, e.g. “The Government was accused of putting up a smoke screen to hide the real problems of higher education”; “The storm of abuse in the popular press that greeted the appearance of Webster’s Third International Dictionary is a curious phenomenon. Metaphors used in colloquial speech are generally unextended figures of speech more or less established in the language but which have not lost their figurativeness, e.g. “Don’t like to be a little fish in a big pond”, “Called my daughter-in-law a snob and a lion-hunter”.
  1. b) Metonymy. Metonymy (Gr. metonymia “changing of name”) is a transfer of meaning based upon the association of contiguity. In metonymy the name of one thing is applied to another with which it has some permanent or temporary connection. The transfer may be based on temporal, spatial, causal, functional, instrumental and other relations.
Like metaphors, metonymy can be divided into linguistic metonymy (i.e. words of metonymic origin) and metonymy as a stylistic device. In linguistic metonymy the transferred meaning has been established in the semantic structure of the word as a secondary meaning. In the course of time its figurativeness and emotional colouring have faded, e.g. “a hand”- may denote a worker in a factory, a member of a ship’s crew, “the House” may be used for the House of Commons or the House of Lords. If a metonymic transfer of meaning is still felt to be figurative, it can be regarded as a stylistic device. Stylistic metonymy may be divided into figures of speech established in the language and individual contributions. Metonymic figures of speech established in the language are a frequent occurrence in colloquial speech, e.g. “The whole table was stirring with impatience”; “you’re not going to let those beastly papers in, are you?”; “I don’t know that I noticed her.” – “Dear, I saw the corner of your eye”; “How can a man of nine hundred keep out of the Bench? (the bench is the law-court). Metonymic transfer may be conditioned by various relations; A characteristic feature can be used instead of its possessor, e.g. “Who’s the moustache?” he asked. ”Harry?”- “The one you were kissing. There’s too much petticoat in business today; [Steinbeck, WD] It was one of a million identical dreams of a million olive uniforms and cotton prints: (olive uniforms and cotton prints = young men and women). Metonymy of this kind often becomes stereotyped, e.g. names of characters in fairy-tales, such as Bed Riding Hood. Bluebeard. A symbol can be used for an object, e.g. “Both the scales and the sword were allied with the infants”; (the scales = the law-court; the sword = the police); “the good fortune of the boy in having more of you on land than he would have in crown and anchor buttons”: (in crown and anchor buttons = in the navy); “Then I think of taking silk, he said;  (to take silk = to become a lawyer). The name of the place can be used for somebody or something connected with it, e.g. “George was committed definitely to the joys of the table”; It was full late for the river: (the river = a picnic on the riverside). A concrete noun may stand for an abstract one, e.g. Her hollowed cheeks with the fallen leaf in them. My mother’s voice had the true tiger in it. An abstract notion may stand for a concrete one, e.g. Good morning, sir. Authority has suddenly turned into subservience. Subservience sprang round the counter; [Bennett] The liner came in on a Saturday evening …; hand in hand they watched their separation anchor in the bay. An object may denote an action or a field of activity, e.g. When I awakened, old sleepy Mary was up and gone and coffee and bacon were afoot;  He was just coming from a cup of coffee in the Foremaster’s;  They say her mother’s father was cement. An object may stand for a person connected with it, e.g. “And the first cab having been fetched from the public house, where he had been smoking his first pipe. There is smother figure of speech related to metonymy, often included under it. This is synecdoche (Gr. Synekdoche “receiving together”), a figure of speech by which a part is used for a whole or a whole for a part, the singular for the plural or the plural for the singular, the special for the general or vice versa, e.g. “At last he was seen, sighted to the first sail of the Armada”;  “We thought of the fine little faces around the table for which we provide food by writing our interviews”; “In the morning old Hitler-face questioned me again;  especially synecdoche, has given rise to numerous phraseological units, e.g. “to one’s finger-ends”. Alongside with metaphors, metonymy is used with a view to add figurativeness to description. At the same time metonymy enables the speaker or the writer to express his subjective attitude towards the object under discussion. 3) Antonomasia. Antonomasia (Gr. antonomazo “name instead”) is a figure of speech closely related to both metaphor and metonymy. It is the use of a proper name to express a general idea or the substitution of an epithet for a proper name. In metaphoric antonomasia a name of a person is used as a common noun, applied to some other person or thing possessing one or more of the characteristic features of the bearer of the name [5, p.365]. Antonomasia can be divided into linguistic transfers of meaning and stylistic devices. Although common nouns like ‘dunce, hooligan’, etc. are based on antonomasia, the figurativeness has faded away and even the small initial letters in spelling serve to indicate that these words have lost their original connection with proper names. Instances, however, where antonomasia is established in the language but the transfer is still felt, are more frequent, for example: “When it becomes necessary to kick John Bull out of America, Mr. Washington stepped forward, and performed that job with satisfaction; (Thackeray, BS) (John Bull = the English people or the typical Englishman); “It satisfied the police and Mrs. Grundy”; (Mrs. Grundy = society in regard to its censorship of personal conduct). In metaphorical antonomasia the name of some historical personage may he used for a common noun, e.g. “Knowing him finally she was the Alexander seeking new worlds; He’s a soldier and an explorer, and a Napoleon of industry; He would be a Napoleon of peace, or a Bismarck – and she the woman behind him; Names taken from ancient history, mythology or the Bible are also frequent, e.g. With only a stepmother – closely related to Jezebel;  (Jezebel = the wife of Ahab, king of Israel, notorious for her conduct); Tripping airily into its office, she laid a scrap of paper before a lovely Hebe who was typing there; (Here = in Greek mythology the goddess of youth and spring); He was …as Ishmael not fit for a daughter of Israel;  (Ishmael = the outcast son of Abraham); He was still her Antonius, her Apollo even. Metaphorical antonomasia is sometimes based on the names of characters taken from English literature, e.g. “A bit of Mrs. Gummidge”; (Mrs. Gummidge = a constantly complaining character in Ch. Dickens’s novel “David Copperfield”); There is another kind of antonomasia consisting in the use of an epithet instead of a proper name. In order to be understandable to the listener or to the reader, epithets used instead of a proper name have to be either established in the language or to be sufficiently motivated in a work of fiction. Many nicknames of historical or public characters are based on antonomasia, e.g. “the Iron Duke” (the first Duke of Wellington); “Old Hickory” (Andrew Jackson, 7th president of the U.S.). Sometimes both varieties of antonomasia are used side by side, e.g. “he knew men and cities well, like the old Greek. Without the dreadful disadvantage of having a Penelope waiting at home for him; (the old Greek = Odysseus; Penelope- his wife, the type of wifely constancy, any faithful wife). Metonymic antonomasia is based on some relation of contiguity. A product can be named after the Inventor, manufacturer or after the place where it is produced. The hand of a painter, writer, sculptor, etc. can be used to denote his work, e.g. “She … led us into one of the sitting-rooms, brilliant, hung with Sisleys and Pissarros”; “I saw across a little valley like the background of a Durer”; Metonymic antonomasia is a common feature in colloquial speech. It also occurs frequently in political vocabulary, e.g. Wall Street – the chief financial centre of the U.S.; the White House – the U.S. President’s residence and office the Pentagon – U.S. Army headquarters; Downing Street – the British prime minister and cabinet. Another kind of antonomasia consists in the use of meaningful names, which serve the writer to characterize a person, e.g. in Ch. Dickens’s novel “Hard Times” the schoolmasters are called Mr. Grad grind (to grind – to oppress by hard rule, cruel treatment) and Mr. Choakumchild (to choke -to stop the breath of smb). The name Becky Sharp in Thackeray’s novel “Vanity Fair” serves to denote her character. 4) Irony. Irony (Gr. eironeia “dissimulation”) is a figure of speech in which the literal meaning of a lexical unit is the opposite of that intended. Irony is based on the association of two opposite meanings – the denotational and the contextual meaning. The stylistic effect of irony lives in the fact that the contextual meaning does not oust the denotational one but merges into the latter, thus revealing the inner contradiction of a phenomenon. When taken in the narrower sense, irony is the use of a positive estimation instead of a negative one, e.g. “It had sold within a week – that desirable residence. in the shadow of whose perfection a man and a woman had eaten their hearts out; Oliver cried lustily. If he could have known that he was an orphan, left to the tender mercies of churchwardens and overseers, perhaps he would have cried the louder; In addition to a simple antiphrasis irony can be expressed by a series of words to be understood in the opposite meaning, e.g. In great families, when an advantageous place cannot be obtained … for the young man who is grown up, it is a very general custom to send him to sea. The board, in imitation of so wise and salutary an example, took counsel together on the expediency of shipping off Oliver Twist in some small trading vessel bound to a good unhealthy port. This suggested itself as the very best thing that could possibly be done with him, the probability being, that skipper would flog him to death. Irony in the wider sense may be understood only from the whole utterance, the positive or neutral attitude of the speaker including a negative estimation, e.g. “The members of this board were very sage, deep philosophical men; and when they came to turn their attention to the workhouse, they found out at once, what ordinary folks would never have discovered – the poor people liked it! It was a regular place of public entertainment for the poorer classes; a tavern where there was nothing to pay; a public breakfast, dinner,-tea and supper all the year round; a brick and mortar elysium, where it was all play and no work. Sometimes irony is not explicit in the narrower context but it can be understood from the wider context, often from the whole work of fiction, e.g. Thackeray’s ironical attitude towards Becky Sharp in his novel “Vanity Fair” or OscarWilde’s depiction of the Miller’s character in the fairytale “The Devoted Friend’. Besides the association of the denotational and the contextual meaning irony may also be based on the opposition between two style levels. Elements of poetic diction or elevated vocabulary, for instance, acquire the stylistic function of irony when used in colloquial speech, e.g. “These vulgar weeds were about to be dismissed to the dust-heap by the great officials of the household”; (great officials – servants). Irony is widely used in colloquial speech. In the spoken form of the language it is often emphasized by means of intonation. In scientific prose irony is seldom used except in works of a polemic character. Due to its function of expressing the speaker’s or author’s subjective estimation, irony is a frequent stylistic device in publicistic style and in works of fiction [5, p.378]. Conclusion. As we witnessed above stylistics is devided into linguistic stylistics and literary style, and there are different options for combining them, and the first can serve as the basis for the second. When developing the style of perception, both are necessary. They become two aspects of one problem, and one must be able to see not only the difference, but also the unity between them. Linguistic stylistics compares the national norm with special subsystems characteristic of different spheres of communication, called functional styles and dialects (linguistic stylistics in this narrow sense is called functional stylistics), and studies the elements of the language from the point of view of their ability to express and evoke emotions, additional associations and evaluation. An intensively developing branch of stylistics is comparative stylistics, which simultaneously considers the stylistic possibilities of two or more languages. Since comparative stylistics is inextricably linked with literary translation, it, like the stylistics of perception, cannot be isolated from literary style. Literary stylistics studies the totality of means of artistic expression characteristic of a literary work, author, literary movement or an entire era, and the factors on which artistic expression depends. References
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