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Psychological foundations of social adaptation of students with disabilities

Chingiz Qakhramonovich Ochilov, teacher of the Department of General Psychology of Jizzakh State Pedagogical University  Abstract: This article is one of the current problems in which the psychological foundations of social adaptation of students with disabilities, the need to conduct developmental education with anomalous children, methods of correction, compensation and ways to implement them are studied. Key words: Special pedagogy, correction, compensation, integrative, inclusive, inclusive education for abnormal children, differential education, career guidance. Today, in our country, the work of directing young people to professions and training them for the professions they want is accelerating. According to the decision of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On additional measures to further improve the education system” dated November 6, 2020, it is decided to adopt a government decision to further improve the activities of the psychological-pedagogical Republican Diagnostic Center for guiding students to the profession. According to the decision, vocational orientation in the public education system, further improvement of the social-psychological service provision mechanism, introduction of modern forms and methods of vocational orientation based on best practices, introduction and development of inclusive education, and socialization of children, parents, teaching staff and the public – it is intended to create a safe inclusive learning environment for children through psychological preparation. In fact, the main goal of the science of special psychology is to study the necessary conditions for the organization of integrated, inclusive, differential education for anomalous children, to determine the methods of eliminating, correcting or making their psychophysiological deficiencies as possible as possible, and to show educators and teachers the ways of their implementation in practice.  Therefore, anomalies are different, some of them are completely eliminated, some are corrected to some extent, and others are made unknown, that is, compensated. For example, if there are gross defects in the child’s speech, they can be completely eliminated by taking properly organized speech therapy measures in time. If the defect in the child is caused by organic defects (for example, oligophrenia is included in such a defect), even if it cannot be completely eliminated, it can be partially corrected. In the practice of special psychology, there are still such anomalies that cannot be corrected or corrected. Examples include congenital blindness or deafness. In this case, the function of the vision analyzer can be assigned to the sense organs, and the function of the hearing analyzer can be assigned to the vision analyzer, that is, it can be compensated or replaced. Visually impaired children use Braille with their fingers, relying on their senses. In this case, the letter is determined by a combination of six dots. And hearing impaired children can use sign language, i.e. dactyl speech, speech expressed by finger movements. Special psychology is a relatively new science. It began to develop mainly in the middle of the 19th century. In 1925, the Institute of Experimental Psychology was established in Moscow. This institute was founded by the great psychologist Professor L.S. Vygotsky led. L.S. Vygotsky studied the characteristics of the development of anomalous children and developed the doctrine of the complex structure of the defect. In the book “The main problems of psychology”, he showed the need to conduct developmental education with anomalous children, methods of correction, compensation and ways to implement them. drew attention to the need to organize educational work based on and taking into account the potential ability. He left a great theoretical legacy in the field of psychology and is rightfully considered the founder of the science of psychology. Famous psychologist L. V. Zankov since 1935 L. S. He began to work in collaboration with Vygotsky. These scientists were of great importance in the theoretical formation of Soviet psychology and psychology. They studied the laws of mental development of mentally retarded children and exposed unscientific and reactionary theories such as “theory of developmental arrest”, “borderline” degeneration theory, “spiritually defective”. In the laboratory of experimental psychology, comparative experimental studies were conducted to study how the development of anomalous children changes under the influence of special education, to identify their existing defects, as well as positive and negative aspects. I.M. Solovev also comprehensively studied the development of cognitive activity in healthy and abnormal children. The book “Psychology of cognitive activity in normal and abnormal children” was the result of this work. I.M. Solovev with a group of employees showed a real innovation in studying complex forms of comparison with the help of experimental research. In 1943, the Institute of Experimental Psychology was transformed into the Research Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Psychological Sciences. The role of the employees of this institute in the development of modern psychological science has become extremely large. Now, in almost all republics of Russia, the work of training psychologists with higher education has been started in the faculties or departments of psychology. The development of the special science of psychology in Uzbekistan has accelerated since 1967, because in that year the department of oligophrenopsychology was established under the Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology of the Nizamiy Tashkent State Institute of Psychology. Deaf psychology department was added to this department in 1976. In 1984, education began in several departments of the independent psychology department. So, to sum up, the issue of determining the mental characteristics of children with disabilities and creating conditions for their social adaptation in society has always been in the country’s attention. As a result of the development of the science of special psychology, the following branches were separated from it as an independent science: deaf psychology (derived from the Latin word surdus – deaf, dumb) – a science dealing with the education of hearing-impaired children; typhlopsychology (derived from the Greek word tyflos – blind, blind) is a science dealing with the education of visually impaired children; derived from the words oligophrenopsychology (from the Greek oligos – little, phren – intelligence), – a science dealing with the education of mentally weak children;logopedia (derived from the Greek words logos – word, padeo – training) is a science that studies the ways and methods of studying, preventing and eliminating severe speech defects. From the day the child is born, he laughs, hears, touches something, feels pain, heat, smell and taste.Tevarak begins with knowing the surrounding existence – feeling and perception, that is, with the reflection of objects and events in reality in the child’s mind. A child’s perception is greatly improved in the first years of his life, and at the age of two, he begins to distinguish objects from each other by color, shape, size, distinguish a familiar tone, etc. He develops various sensory skills: seeing and examining, listening and hearing, distinguishing objects according to their external signs, and imitating what he sees and hears. A child should receive various impressions – see objects, hold them, observe the activities of adults, hear various sounds. This is a necessary condition for children’s sensory development. The timely development of sensory abilities creates a foundation for children’s mental education. Attention, memory, desire, interest and other similar mental processes are of great importance for the child’s mental development. Timely and correct development of a child’s speech is the basis of mental development. Speech is a mental process: it has a great influence on the development of perception, memory, etc., on children’s activities. As children’s speech begins to develop, the role of adult words as an educational tool increases. The formation of a child’s personality begins from the first days of his life. Based on what he sees and hears every day, the child expresses his attitude to the existence and the people around him, the child’s assessment of the behavior and work of adults, the happenings, his attitude towards people – all this affects the formation of the child’s spiritual image. Violation of certain conditions necessary for the child’s development, either in the mother’s womb or after birth, can lead to various anomalies, that is, physical or mental defects and deficiencies. In psychology, work is carried out on different categories of anomalous children in need of special support: 1) children with hearing impairments (deaf from birth, children with hearing impairment, children who later became hearing impaired); 2) visually impaired (blind, visually impaired children); 3) blind-deaf-mute children; 4) oligophrenic (moron, imbecile, idiot children); 5) children with severe speech defects; 6) children with locomotor defects; 7) mentally retarded children. Anomalous children should be brought up and educated among healthy peers in inclusive education or in special educational institutions. Only defects that strongly affect the overall development of the child can be the basis for considering him as an anomalous child. For example, if a child hears only in his left ear, but this defect does not affect his overall development, and he learns like his healthy peers in general school, he does not belong to the category of anomalous children. This person cannot be considered anomalous if the defects that appear in adults due to certain reasons do not affect their general development. Severe, sharp changes observed in the physical and mental development of anomalous children in need of special support have a negative impact on the formation of the child’s personality. Therefore, special conditions should be created for the upbringing and education of such children, that is, they should be taught and brought up in special kindergartens and schools, based on special programs and textbooks, they need special support. Any abnormal development may be related to organic or functional changes in the central or peripheral nervous system. Various deficiencies in child development can also appear as a result of unfavorable environment, improper upbringing, and education. For example, unfavorable family conditions, pedagogical neglect, the teacher’s inappropriate attitude towards the child and many other reasons have a negative impact on the child’s development, causing him to be unable to master the program materials well and to be among the underachieving students.  Nevertheless, we do not include such a child in the category of anomalous children, because the defects in his development are not due to any organic or functional pathological changes in the body, but are caused by other reasons. Educators and teachers should be able to distinguish such children from anomalous children. Any anomalous development due to the causes of origin can be congenital or acquired in marriage. Congenital anomalies largely depend on the health and living conditions of the expectant mother. The development of the fetus in the mother’s womb can be affected by infection, intoxication, injury and other factors. The mother’s suffering from various diseases during pregnancy, and the arbitrary consumption of various medicines may cause the child to be born abnormal. Congenital anomalies can also be caused by genetic factors. For example, impairment of hearing, visual analyzer, transmission of intellectual disabilities from generation to generation is observed (Down’s disease, rhesus factor incompatibility, etc.).Parents’ alcoholism, drug addiction, and drug addiction can also cause the child to be born abnormal. Anomalies acquired in marriage occur as a result of harmful factors affecting the child’s body during birth and in the subsequent periods.During childbirth, brain injury, long passage of the child through the birth canal, vacuum-extractor or umbral insertion, umbilical cord wrapping and suffocation of the child (asphyxia), etc., can sometimes lead to its abnormal development. A child suffering from various diseases at a very young age, such as meningitis, meningoencephalitis, otitis, damage to the central nervous system, and other similar diseases can also cause anomalous development. In our country, many measures are being taken to prevent children’s anomalies, a lot of progress has been made in this field. In Uzbekistan, the number of anomalous children has relatively decreased due to the expansion of prevention and treatment of the population and the great achievements in the field of medicine. There are cases of children becoming anomalous after smallpox, plague, typhoid, cholera, trachoma, measles and other infectious diseases specific to children. Due to hereditary factors and intoxication and other reasons that lead to damage to the brain and analyzers during the formation of the organism, there are still cases of the child becoming anomalous. Teachers working in educational institutions should know how to organize teaching forms at an optimal level, to enrich the theory of formation of a well-rounded person with various new ideas. After all, ensuring the success of the reforms carried out in the education system of our country largely depends on the moral image and professional skills of teachers and educators working in educational institutions. Educating a person to the level of a well-rounded person is an extremely complex process, and mature people of society have been involved in this activity since ancient times. This situation is important in defining not only the development of the individual, but also the development of the society. A teacher is a person responsible for the education of a mature generation. it is necessary to be able to demonstrate not only spiritual and moral culture but also pedagogic skills as a mature teacher to make a proper contribution to the work of training qualified personnel. Acquiring pedagogical skills is not only a basis for the effectiveness of education for the teacher, but at the same time it also increases his reputation in the society and respect for students. Organization of practical actions to improve professional skills creates an opportunity to get rid of mistakes made or made in pedagogical activities, to achieve success in relations with students, colleagues and parents. List of references
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